The Endocrine System

Published on 21st June 2018

The Endocrine System is a module in the Anatomy and Physiology course we provide as an E-Course. 

If you are studying anatomy and physiology and have missed a class or need some extra help with a particular system, you can buy each body system individually. The Anatomy and Physiology of the Endocrine system including; film, workbook, online assessments, supplementary notes and self assessment questions.(FHT CPD Value = 2 Points) Price £14.25

The Endocrine System

Chemical messengers – Hormones – are secreted into the bloodstream 
and travel to target organs to regulate their function 

 

FUNCTIONS

  • Concerned with regulating: 
    • Metabolism 
    • Growth 
    • Homeostasis 
    • Resistance to Stress 
    • Reproduction 

PHYSIOLOGY

  • Works alongside nervous system
  • Hormones secreted directly into blood stream
  • Travel to target cells which have receptor sites 
  • The negative feedback maintains optimum levels of hormones 
  • Hypothalamus provides direct link between nervous and endocrine systems

ANATOMY

Consists of glands around the body that produce and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream:

  • Pituitary
  • Thyroid
  • Parathyroid
  • Pineal
  • Adrenals
  • Gonads
  • Pancreas
  • Thymus

THE ENDOCRINE GLANDS &  THEIR HORMONES

Pituitary 
Antidiuretic Hormone  (ADH) – Vasopressin  
Oxytocin  
Prolactin  
Growth Hormone (GH)  
Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH)  
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)  
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)  
Luteinising Hormone (LH)  
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)

Thyroid 
Thyroxine  
Calcitonin 

Parathyroid 
Parathormone 

Pineal 
Secretes Melatonin

Adrenal 
Adrenal Medulla:  
Adrenalin    
Noradrenalin

Adrenal Cortex:    
Glucocorticoids    
Mineralocorticoids    
Sex hormones 

Ovaries 
Oestrogen
Progesterone 

Testes 
Testosterone 

Thymus 
Thymosin 

Pancreas 
Special cells called the Islets of Langerhans secrete two hormones:
Insulin  
Glucagon 

THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM - DISEASE AND DISORDERS 

  • Usually due to either:
    • Underactivity or 
    • Overactivity of the gland 
  • Or pituitary tumour affecting many hormonal secretions

 

SELF-ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 

1) Which of the following are true of hormones: 
 
a) Hormones are chemical messages
b) They are secreted from the central nervous system
c) They are secreted into ducts
d) They are secreted into the bloodstream
e) They are controlled by positive feedback 
 
2) Which of the following are true about the pituitary gland - the pituitary gland stimulates: 
 
a) The thyroid gland
b) The pancreas
c) The parathyroid
d) The adrenal medulla
e) The adrenal cortex
f) The kidneys
g) The ovaries 
 
3) Growth hormone is secreted by: 
 
a) The thyroid
b) The pituitary
c) The hypothalamus 
 
4) Match the term on the left with the proper selection on the right:  
 
a) Pituitary             i)  Pelvic cavity
b) Parathyroids       ii) Mediastinum
c) Adrenals             iii) Neck
d) Ovaries              iv) Cranial cavity
e) Thymus             v) Abdominal cavity 

5) TSH acts on the: 
 
a) Thyroid      b) Thymus    c) Pineal   d) Testes 
 
6) ACTH stimulates the: 
 
a) Adrenal cortex  
b) Adrenal medulla  
c) Hypothalamus  
d) Ovaries 
  
7) Select the correct word in brackets: 
 
a) Parathyroid hormone (increases / decreases) calcium levels in the blood
b) Insulin (increases / decreases) glucose levels in the blood
c) Thyroxine (increases / decreases) the metabolism  
d) ADH (increases / decreases) urine output
e) Melatonin causes (wakefulness / drowsiness)

 

Answers

1) a and d

2) a, e and g

3) b

4) a – iv, b – iii, c – v – d – I, e – ii

5) b

6) a

7) a – increases, b – decreases, c – increases, d – decreases, e - drowsiness

 

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