Pathologies Of The Reproductive System

Published on 17th September 2019


A sexually transmitted disease carried in semen, can be symptom free or cause Chlamydia in the penis can cause:

a whitish, cloudy or watery discharge 

pain when urinating

burning or itching in the urethra (the tube that carries urine out of the body)

pain and swelling in the testicles.

In the vagina, it can cause:

a change in vaginal discharge

pain when urinating

pain in the belly or lower back

pain during sex

bleeding between periods or after sex.



occurs when bits of the tissue that lines the uterus (endometrium) grow on other pelvic organs, such as the ovaries or fallopian tubes. Outside the uterus, endometrial tissue thickens and bleeds, just as the normal endometrium does during the menstrual cycle. Can cause pelvic pain and painful periods


are non-cancerous growths that develop in or around the womb (uterus). The growths are made up of muscle and fibrous tissue, and vary in size


 is a surgical procedure to remove the womb (uterus)

Menstrual disorders

These include absence of periods, infrequent,  too frequent, too long, to heavy or too light periods


is the medical term for menstrual periods with abnormally heavy or prolonged bleeding


is the inflammation (swelling) of the prostate gland. It can be very painful and distressing, but will often get better eventually


 is a natural part of ageing that usually occurs between 45 and 55 years of age, as a woman's oestrogen levels decline and usually indicated by significant changes in the menstrual cycle

Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (Thrush)

a common vaginal yeast infection. Thrush occurs when there is an overgrowth of Candida albicans (yeast-like fungus) in the vagina

Benign prostatic enlargement/hyperplasia

is a common condition as men get older. An enlarged prostate gland can cause uncomfortable urinary symptoms, such as blocking the flow of urine out of the bladder. It can also cause bladder, urinary tract or kidney problems


Failure of a female to respond to sexual stimulus


s a common problem amongst men and is characterized by the consistent inability to sustain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse or the inability to achieve ejaculation, or both

Ovarian cysts

is a fluid-filled sac that develops on an ovary. They're very common and do not usually cause any symptoms. Most ovarian cysts occur naturally and go away in a few months without needing any treatment


Occurs in the second half of pregnancy and can cause a baby to be premature.

Prolapse – uterus/vagina

Occurs when the uterus slips out of place and may protrude out of the vagina

Gonorrhoea Trichomonas

Gonorrhoea is caused by bacteria that live in warm, moist parts of the body such as the throat, rectum, penis and vagina. Left untreated, gonorrhoea can cause infertility in both men and women


is an inflammation of the vagina that can result in discharge, itching and pain. The cause is usually a change in the normal balance of vaginal bacteria or an infection. Reduced oestrogen levels after menopause and some skin disorders can also cause vaginitis

Toxic Shock Syndrome

is a rare but life-threatening condition caused by bacteria getting into the body and releasing harmful toxins. It's often associated  with the use of tampons


is a very common sexually transmitted disease (STD). It is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. Although symptoms of the disease vary, most people who have the parasite cannot tell they are infected.


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