Anatomical Terms

Published on 18th December 2021

 

To understand the workings of the muscles, it is really important to understand the terminology of the subject anatomy and physiology. Here is a useful list: Left

Lateral

Toward the side (Away from the mid-sagittal plane)

Eyes are lateral to the nose

Medial

Away from the side (Towards the mid-sagittal plane)

Eyes are medial to the ears

Anterior

[ventral] Toward the front of the body

[belly side of the body] Nose is on the anterior of the body

Posterior

[dorsal]

Toward the back (rear) of the body

[vertebral side of the body] Heel is posterior to the toes

[dorsal surface: nape of the neck, back of the hand, top of the foot ]

Superior

[cephalic/cranial]

Toward the top of the body

[toward the head] Shoulders are superior to the hips

Inferior

[caudal]

Toward the bottom of the body [toward the buttocks/tail]

Stomach is inferior to the heart

Proximal

Toward the trunk

(describes relative position in limb) Knee is proximal to the ankle

Distal

Away from the trunk

(describes relative position in limb) Hand is distal to the elbow

Deep

Toward the inside

Away from the surface Thigh muscles are deep to the skin

Superficial

Toward the surface

Away from the inside Abdominal muscles are superficial to the intestines

Palmar

Anterior surface of the hand Palm of the hand

Plantar

Underside of foot Sole of the foot

Ipsilateral

Same side

Parietal

Outer layer

Contralateral

Opposite side

Visceral

Inner layer

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