Revision of the anatomy and physiology of the endocrine system

Published on 2nd February 2017

The anatomy and physiology of THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Complementary therapies have a balancing effect on the endocrine system and on hormones. This is an important body system for students of the ITEC Level Anatomy and Physiology Course.


Chemical messengers – Hormones – are secreted into the bloodstream and travel to target organs to regulate their function

FUNCTIONS
•    Concerned with regulating:
o    Metabolism
o    Growth
o    Homeostasis
o    Resistance to Stress
o    Reproduction

PHYSIOLOGY
•    Works alongside nervous system
•    Hormones secreted directly into blood stream
•    Travel to target cells which have receptor sites
•    The negative feedback maintains optimum levels of hormones
•    Hypothalamus provides direct link between nervous and endocrine systems
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

ANATOMY
Consists of glands around the body that produce and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream:
•    Pituitary
•    Thyroid
•    Parathyroid
•    Pineal
•    Adrenals
•    Gonads
•    Pancreas
•    Thymus
 
THE ENDOCRINE GLANDS &
THEIR HORMONES
Pituitary
Antidiuretic Hormone  (ADH) – Vasopressin    
Oxytocin    
Prolactin        
Growth Hormone (GH)    
Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH)    
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)    
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)    
Luteinising Hormone (LH)    
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)    

Thyroid
Thyroxine    
Calcitonin    
Parathyroid
Parathormone
Pineal
Secretes Melatonin    


THE ENDOCRINE GLANDS &
THEIR HORMONES
Adrenal
Adrenal Medulla:
    Adrenalin     
    Noradrenalin
Adrenal Cortex:    
        Glucocorticoids    
        Mineralocorticoids    
        Sex hormones    
Ovaries
Oestrogen    
Progesterone    

Testes
Testosterone    
Thymus
Thymosin    

Pancreas
Special cells called the Islets of Langerhans secrete two hormones:
Insulin    
Glucagon    
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
DISEASE AND DISORDERS

•    Usually due to either:
o    Underactivity or
o    Overactivity of the gland

•    Or pituitary tumour affecting many hormonal secretions

 

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