Incontinence is a surprisingly common disease of the urinary system caused by many things from pregnancy to strokes. Incontinence is when urine leaks from the bladder and control issues arise when the sphincter muscles of the tube from the bladder called the urethra are too weak or too active. If the sphincter muscles are too weak, a cough or sneeze can cause urination. Sphincter muscles that are too active can trigger a sudden, strong urge to urinate with little urine in the bladder. These issues are diagnosed as urinary incontinence (UI). Women experience UI twice as often as men. It becomes more common with age. www.visiblebody.com
There are several types of urinary incontinence, including:
urge incontinence – when urine leaks as you feel a sudden, intense urge to pass urine, or soon afterwards
stress incontinence – when urine leaks out at times when your bladder is under pressure; for example, when you cough or laugh or exercise
It's also possible to have a mixture of both stress and urge urinary incontinence.
overflow incontinence (chronic urinary retention) – when you're unable to fully empty your bladder, which causes frequent leaking
total incontinence – when your bladder can't store any urine at all, which causes you to pass urine constantly or have frequent leaking
Kidney stones are clumps of a mineral called calcium oxalate that can be found anywhere in the urinary tract. Kidney stones form when chemicals in the urine become concentrated enough to form a solid mass. They can cause pain in the back and sides, as well as blood in the urine, nausea, vomiting, and frequent and painful urination. Not drinking enough water can contribute to the foramtion of kidney stones.
Most stones start off the size of a small piece of gravel and can even pass out of the body unnoticed. If the stones are large they can become very painful. However, it can take years before they grow to a size that is big enough to cause symptoms.
Kidney stones can be extremely painful when larger stones, or fragments of stones, can travel down the ureter (the tube from the kidneys to the bladder). They can cause painful spasms of the wall of the ureter, known as renal colic.
Many kidney stones can be treated with minimally invasive therapy, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, which disintegrates the kidney stones with shock waves.
You can find more information on the urinary system here
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