Urinary System

Published on 21st May 2018


  • Control composition and volume of blood by regulating 
  • water and solute levels 
  • Remove waste products


2 KIDNEYS (10-12cms)

  • Consists of 3 parts 
    • The Cortex – outer 
    • The Medulla – inner contains pyramids 
    • The Pelvis – opens into the ureters 
    • Cortex and Medulla contain Nephrons - the functional units of the kidneys 


  • Filter from blood: 
    • Protein, Chloride, Sodium, Bicarbonate, Glucose, Urea, Potassium, Uric acid, Water 
  •  Water, Glucose and Proteins are re-absorbed into the capillaries 
  • 1.5 litres leaves body as urine 
  • Process occurs in nephrons 




Urine passes from kidney to bladder through ureters by peristalsis (wave like muscular contraction) 


  • Hollow, muscular organ – reservoir for urine 
  • Capacity 700-800ml of urine 
  • When 200-400ml of urine is in bladder, stretch receptors send 
  • messages via spinal cord to the brain, causing urge to urinate 
  • 2 sphincters at the base of the bladder – internal (involuntary) and external (voluntary) control emptying of the bladder 


  • 95% water plus 
    • Urea – waste product of protein metabolism
    • Uric acid – waste product of nucleic acid metabolism derived from food
    • Sodium Chloride 


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