The Endocrine System is a module in the Anatomy and Physiology course we provide as an E-Course.
If you are studying anatomy and physiology and have missed a class or need some extra help with a particular system, you can buy each body system individually. The Anatomy and Physiology of the Reproductive system including; film, workbook, online assessments, supplementary notes and self assessment questions. (FHT CPD Value = 1 Point) Price £14.25
The male reproductive system:
The female reproductive system:
FUNCTIONS OF OESTROGEN
FUNCTIONS OF PROGESTERONE
NORMAL MENSTRUAL CYCLE – 3 phases involved:
Proliferative Phase (Days 4-13)
Days 1~2 Period begins – lining of uterus comes away. Low levels of oestrogen and progesterone
3~7 Follicle growing and beginning to secrete oestrogen
8~13 Oestrogen levels high and lining of uterus thickening
14 Ovulation occurs, oestrogen levels high. Once egg has left the follicle the remaining corpus luteum produces progesterone
15~20 Oestrogen levels start to fall slightly
21~25 Progesterone levels high
26~28 Oestrogen and progesterone levels falling now that fertilisation has not taken place
Breasts are considered accessory organs to the reproductive system as their main purpose is to provide nourishment for the baby.
Throughout pregnancy there is growth of milk producing ducts and after birth there is the production and secretion of milk.
They are made up of glandular tissue, which forms milk ducts, as well as connective, fibrous and adipose tissue and are divided into lobes and lobules.
The Female breast
Breasts are considered accessory organs to the reproductive system as their main purpose is to provide nourishment for the baby. They are made up of glandular tissue, which forms milk ducts, as well as connective, fibrous and adipose tissue and are divided into lobes and lobules.
They have a rich blood supply as well as lymphatic drainage – mainly to the axillary nodes .The breasts are surrounded and supported by Cooper’s ligaments which then attach to the chest wall. These ligaments can become irreversibly stretched if the breasts grow very large or are unsupported during vigorous exercise.
The increase in hormones during puberty and pregnancy are responsible for their development and growth. Changes also take place during the menstrual cycle as the body prepares itself for pregnancy and this can cause discomfort and sensitivity in some women in the pre menstrual phase. After the menopause when there is no longer any hormonal stimulation through a menstrual cycle the breasts tend to lose their elasticity and support.
In men there is a condition called gynaecomastia where there is excessive growth of breast tissue. Normally it only affects one side
and is benign but it may be the result of an underlying hormonal or liver disorder.
The vulva is the general term for the major external female genitalia:
the labia, clitoris, vaginal and urethral openings and the mons pubis (the pad of fat over the symphysis pubis)
The perineum is the muscular area between the anus and the vulva. It may become torn during childbirth.
Anatomy and Physiology on-line course
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