Pathologies Of The Muscular System

Published on 7th June 2021


Bands of scar-like tissue.
Adhesions cause tissues and organs to stick together. They might connect the loops of the intestines to each other, to nearby organs, or to the wall of the abdomen. They can pull sections of the intestines out of place. This may block food from passing through the intestine.  Adhesions can occur anywhere in the body, but they often form after surgery on the abdomen.

Adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder)

The shoulder capsule, the connective tissue surrounding the glenohumeral joint of the shoulder, becomes inflamed and stiff, greatly restricting motion and causing pain.

Achilles tendonitis

Inflammation in the tendon of the calf muscle, where it attaches to the heel bone. It causes pain and stiffness at the back of the leg, near the heel. Can be caused by an overuse of the Achilles tendon.

Back pain e.g. Lumbago, Rheumatism

Pain felt in the low or upper back.

Lumbago - Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar area of the spine. Pain includes lower back stiffness, muscle tension and achiness.

Rheumatism ? any disease marked by inflammation and pain in the joints, muscles, or fibrous tissue, especially rheumatoid arthritis.


Inflammation of a bursa (tiny fluid-filled sac that functions as a gliding surface to reduce friction between tissues of the body).  The major bursae are located adjacent to the tendons near the large joints, such as the shoulders, elbows, hips and knees.

Deltoid bursitis

When the subdeltoid bursa becomes inflamed, damaged or irritated.  This bursa reduces friction in the shoulder and allows the joint to move more easily.


A disorder of pain processing due to abnormalities in how pain signals are processed in the central nervous system.

Symptoms includes chronic widespread pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance and heightened pain in response to tactile pressure.

Housemaid's knee

Prepatellar bursitis - A swelling over the knee due to an enlargement of the bursa in the front of the patella just beneath the skin. Can be caused by trauma such as that caused by excessive kneeling.

Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow)

The outer part of the elbow (lateral epicondyle) becomes painful and tender.  Caused by inflammation of the tendons that join the forearm muscles on the outside of the elbow.

Medial epicondylitis (golfer's elbow)

Inflammation in the tendons that connect the forearm to the elbow. Causes pain from the elbow to the write on the medial side of the elbow.


General term given to small injuries to the body.  It can include the microtearing of muscle fibres, the sheath around the muscle and the connective tissue.  It can also include stress to the tendons and to the bones.


An overuse injury is any type of muscle or joint injury, such as tendonitis or a stress fracture, that?s caused by repetitive trauma

Repetitive strain injury/syndrome

Repetitive strain injury (RSI) is a general term used to describe the pain in muscles, nerves and tendons caused by repetitive movement and overuse.

Symptoms include burning, aching or shooting pain, tremors, clumsiness and numbness, fatigue or lack of strength and chronically cold hands, particularly the fingertips.

Shin splints

Acute pain caused by inflammation of the front part of the tibia that results from overuse. Shin splints are due to injury to the posterior peroneal tendon, ligaments, and adjacent tissues to the anterior of the leg.


Inflammation or irritation of a tendon.  It commonly occurs as a result of injury or overuse. It causes pain and tenderness just outside a joint.

Achilles bursitis

Inflammation of the bursa located either between the skin of the back of the heel and the Achilles tendon or in the front of the attachment of the Achilles tendon to the heel bone.


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