Pathologies Of The Endocrine System

Published on 27th June 2021


The endocrine system is made up of hormones and glands like the pituitary gland or master gland in the brain. The hormones also known as neuro transmitters becuase they carry messages around the body to create changes. Seratonin and dopamine are two hormones that are known as mood enhancers and are affected by drug taking which is what makes drugs so addictive. They raise our mood, but then a drug taker will come crashing down and need more of the drug to raise the dopamine levels. 

Here are some common diseases and disorders.


Cancer that begins in endocrine tissue (the tissue in the body that secretes hormones). Types include pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid, adrenal and thyroid cancer.


A swelling (lump) in the front of the neck resulting from enlargement of the thyroid gland.  Usually symptomatic of abnormal thyroid secretion ? under or overproduction of hormone.

Grave?s disease

An autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism (over-active thyroid). 

The immune system makes an antibody called thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) that attaches to thyroid cells.  TSI causes the thyroid to make more thyroid hormone than is needed by the body.

Hyperthyroidism ? thyrotoxicosis

The condition that occurs due to excessive thyroid hormone due to any cause. Thyrotoxicosis means an excess of thyroid hormone in the body. Having this condition also means that you have a low level of thyroid stimulating hormone, (TSH) in your bloodstream, because the pituitary gland senses that you have ?enough? thyroid hormone.


A disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.

Symptoms include poor ability to tolerate cold, tiredness, constipation, depression and weight gain.


Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, even when a person has the chance to do so.

Acute insomnia is brief and often happens due to life changes e.g stress

Chronic insomnia is disrupted sleep that occurs at least thee nights per week and lasts at least three months.


A dermatological change that can occur in hyperthyroidism and (rare) cases of hypothyroidism. Symptoms include swelling of the skin and underlying tissues giving a waxy consistency.

Myxoedema can occur in the lower leg and behind the eyes.


Abnormal growth of the hands, feet and face, caused by overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland.

Usually caused by a non-cancerous tumour in the pituitary gland called an adenoma.


A rate condition that causes abnormal growth in children. Occurs when the pituitary gland produces too much of the growth hormone somatotropin


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