Facts about the anatomy and physiology of the cell

Published on 14th November 2016

THE anatomy and physiology of the CELL

The cell is the basic living, structural and functional unit of the human body

It is the activity within the cell which constitutes what is called life


To produce protein to:


Replace itself for growth, repair and renewal

Breakdown in the proper functioning of cells is the basis of disease

ANATOMY Made up of:

80% water
15% protein
3% lipids (fats)
1% carbohydrates
1% nucleic acid and minerals

All cells have a similar basic construction




Porous sandwich of fat and protein



Controls construction of essential proteins needed by cells for repair and renewal



Packages proteins that the ribosomes have made



Internal transport system of the cell



Sacs filled with enzymes



Embedded in the Cytoplasm

·Supervises cell activity – the ‘brain’ of the cell

Surrounded by nuclear membrane



“The Powerhouse of the cell!”   Converts oxygen and nutrients into energy through action of enzymes


Jelly like “filling” made of 70~80% water

CHROMOSOME (found within nucleus)

Begin as structures called chromatids which are two parallel filaments joined together at the centromere

Made up of strands of DNA.  Small parts of these DNA strands are called genes

There are 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs in every cell (except sperm and ovum)






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