Common Diseases in Cells

Published on 7th December 2018

Cells and Tissues is a module in the ITEC Anatomy and Physiology course we provide as an E-Course. 

The Anatomy and Physiology of the Cells and Tissues including; film, workbook, online assessments, supplementary notes and self assessment questions.(FHT CPD Value = 5 Points) Price £14.25

Cells

All known living things are made up of cells. All cells come from pre-existing cells by division. The cell is structural and functional unit of all living things. Here are some examples of common cell diseases.

Cancer

A term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. There are several main types of cancer. Carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs. Sarcoma is a cancer that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia is a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue, such as the bone marrow, and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma are cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system cancers are cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord. Also called malignancy.

Source https://www.cancer.gov/

Anaemia

There are various types of anemia which include but is not limited to: iron-deficiency anemia – when the body isn’t making enough red blood cells due to a low intake of iron or a substantial loss of blood.  Normocytic anemia – when your body is not producing enough red blood cells for the body to function normally. This type of anemia is usually caused by long-term conditions such as kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. Haemolytic anemia –when the body destroys abnormal red blood cells which doesn’t leave the body enough red blood cells to function and the bone marrow can’t keep up with the demand for more cells. Fanconi anemia – this is when the bone marrow can’t make red blood cells.  It is an inherited disorder and in children can be very dangerous as it can lead to leukemia and stunt growth. Pernicious anemia – also known as B12 deficiency. This can result in nerve damage if not treated or managed. Thalassemia – a genetic form of anemia which is causes the body not to produce enough haemoglobin which is needed by red blood cells to carry oxygen.

Malaria

The plasmodium parasite is spread by female Anopheles mosquitoes, which are known as "night-biting" mosquitoes because they most commonly bite between dusk and dawn.

If a mosquito bites a person already infected with malaria, it can also become infected and spread the parasite on to other people. However, malaria can't be spread directly from person to person.

Once you're bitten, the parasite enters the bloodstream and travels to the liver. The infection develops in the liver before re-entering the bloodstream and invading the red blood cells.

The parasites grow and multiply in the red blood cells. At regular intervals, the infected blood cells burst, releasing more parasites into the blood. Infected blood cells usually burst every 48-72 hours. Each time they burst, you'll have a bout of fever, chills and sweating.

Malaria can also be spread through blood transfusions and the sharing of needles, but this is very rare.

Source: https://www.nhs.uk

There are many other common cell diseases.  You can find more information on Cells and Tissues here 

 

 

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