Bones

Published on 29th March 2018

CLASSIFICATION OF BONES

 

Long Bones – greater dimension in one direction

Short Bones – same dimension in all directions

Flat Bones – sandwich of compact/cancellous/compact bone

Irregular Bones – do not fit above definitions

Sesamoid Bones – held inside tendons.  Protective function

 

BONE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

Like skin, bone replaces itself throughout adult life.  When old bone tissue is replaced by new bones tissue this is called remodeling.  In long bones, new bone is formed externally and the diameter of the bone increases

Bone growth and development depend on:

  • Sufficient quantities of calcium and phosphorus (makes bones hard)
  • Vitamin D (for the absorption of calcium from the diet)
  • Vitamin C (to help maintain the matrix of bone)
  • Vitamin A (to help regulate the number of osteoblasts)
  • Perhaps Vitamin B12
  • The right hormones

KNOW YOUR BONES

CRANIUM                                               UPPER LIMB

Parietal                                                      Humerus

Frontal                                                       Ulna

Ethmoid                                                     Radius

Sphenoid                                                   Carpals:               Scaphoid

Occipital                                                                                 Lunate

Temporal                                                                                Triquetral

                                                                                                Pisiform

FACIAL                                                                                  Trapezium

Nasal                                                                                       Trapezoid

Zygomatic                                                                              Capitate

Maxilla                                                                                    Hamate

Lacrimal                                                     Metacarpals (5) x2

Turbinator                                                 Phalanges - Hand (14) x28

Palatine

Mandible                                                   LOWER LIMB  

Vomer                                                        Femur

Hyoid                                                                   Tibia

                                                                   Fibula

VERTEBRAE                                            Tarsals:                Cuneiforms

Cervical (7)                                                                             (medial, intermediate, lateral)

Thoracic (12)                                                                          Navicular

Lumbar (5)                                                                              Cuboid

Sacrum (5)                                                                              Talus

Coccyx (4)                                                                               Calcaneus           

                                                                   Metatarsals (5) x5

                                                                   Phalanges - Foot  (14) x2

SHOULDER GIRDLE                   Patella

Scapula

Clavicle

                                                          THORAX

                                                                   Sternum

                                                                   Ribs (12 pairs)

PELVIC GIRDLE

Innominate bones:       Ischium

                             Ilium

                             Pubis

 

       JOINT MOVEMENTS

Flexion / Extension
Abduction / Adduction
Medial rotation / Lateral rotation
Pronation / Supination
Elevation / Depression
Retraction / Protraction
Side flexion
Rotation
Dorsiflexion / Plantarflexion
Eversion / Inversion
Accessory movements
Circumduction
Opposition
Hyperextension

 

Some specific joints also have special movements exclusive to them:

 
·Spine                    -                   Lateral flexion

 

Scapula and jaw   -                   Protraction / retraction

elevation / depression

 

Forearm / wrist     -                   Pronation / supination

radial deviation / ulnar deviation

 
·Thumbs                -                   Opposition

JOINTS

3 types:

  • FIXED (Fibrous) – held together by fibrous ligament.  No movement
  • SLIGHTLY MOVEABLE (Cartilaginous) - cartilage pad between bone ends.  Some movement
  • FREELY MOVEABLE – wide range of movement. Also known as synovial joints
  • SYNOVIAL JOINTS 

 

Freely moveable

Ends of bones covered with cartilage
Joint surrounded by synovial membrane
Joint space filled with synovial fluid.  This is secreted by synovial membrane and has the consistency of egg white.  It provides nutrients to the cartilage and lubrication for joint
Capsular ligament forms a sleeve of dense fibrous tissue around the joint
Bursae found between muscle tendons and ligaments are small pouches of synovial membrane.  Protective function.

 

 

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